Parashat Vayikra

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Parashas Vayikra is the first parsha in the Book of Vayikra. It contains 111 pesukim. For the Haftora, a section from Yishayahu 43 is read.


[edit] Korbanos

[edit] Calling Moshe

Hashem called out to Moshe from the Ohel Moed and told him to instruct the Jews about sacrifices. Before Hashem would instruct or command Moshe,[1] he would first call out to him by his name. This was sign of affection and is also done by the ministering angels when they address each other.[1] Unlike gentile prophets like Bilam who Hashem revealed Himself to them through expressions of coincidence and impurity. This calling would only be given to Moshe at the start of a new prophecy, but when a single prophecy contained multiple subjects only a break was given between each part but not a separate calling.[1] During these breaks Moshe would have time to contemplate what he had just received.[1] If the great Moshe needed a pause between subjects to contemplate each then certainly ordinary people need pauses of contemplations between subjects.[1]

[1] Hashem would speak to Moshe from within the Ohel Moed, His voice originating from the Kapores cover of the Ahron from between the two Keruvim.[1] Hashem's voice would emanate and reach Moshes ears but the rest of the Jews did not hear it,[1] because it would stop at the edge of the Ohel Moed. Even Aharon did not hear these prophecies, with the exception 13 times when prophecies were given to both Moshe and Ahron at the same time.[1] Not only did the Jews not hear the actual prophecy, they did not hear Hashem calling Moshe either.[1] Although the voice of Hashem is mightly and uproots trees, when it would reach the end of Ohel Moed it would stop.[1] This is similar to the vision of Yechezkel where the mighty sound of the Krubims wings only reached the outer courtyard of the Beis Hamikdash and would then stop.[1]

Moshe was to tell the Jews that it was only in their merit that Hashem was speaking directly to him.[1] Indeed after the Sin of the Spies when the Jews no longer had merit and Hashem did not address Moshe directly for 38 years, until that entire generation had died.[1] Also Moshe was to ask the Jews if they accepted the laws of the sacrifices, similar to Har Sini where Moshe was told to report back the decision of the Jews to Hashem.[1]

[edit] Sacrifice Requirements

When a man wants to bring a voluntary[2] sacrifice to Hashem, he could be only bring a domesticated animal from either his Cattle or Flock but not a wild beast. [2] A person can not bring a stolen sacrifice just like Adom never offered sacrifices from stolen property, since he was the first man and everything was his.[2] An animal that had active or passive relationships with a human,[2] was worshiped as a deity,[2] of was designated as a sacrifice for a deity,[2] gored and killed a man,[2] has a terminal disease or injury[2] is not fit for a sacrifice.[2] It is possible for two people to donate a voluntary burnt offering in partnership.[2] Also the overall Nation would offer joint burnt offerings known as Kayitz HaMezbeach offerings, which were purchased from the leftovers of the previous year's half shekel collection and would be offered whenever the Mezbeach was ideal and no individual sacrifices were being brought.[2]

[edit] Korban Olah

If a person wants to bring a burnt offering form his cattle, he needs to bring an unblemished[3] male only.[3] He himself[3] must care for the animal and bring it to the entrance of the Ohel Moed before Hashem. The Olah would then be accepted for him as an atonement for failure to perform positive commandments or for violation of negative commandments that is associated with a positive commandments that can be done to make up for the violation, but it would not atone for Kares, death penalties of Beis Din, heavenly death penalties, or lashes.[4]

If a person pledges and animal as a Korban Olah and then changes his mind. Beis Din coerces him until he willingly agrees to bring the sacrifice.[3]

[edit] Mixed Sacrifices

  • If the burnt offering animal of two people get mixed up and can not be identified, they can still be sacrificed in the name of whoever the rightful owner of that animal is.[3]
  • If the burnt offering animal gets mixed up with regular animals and can not be identified. Then all the animals are sold to people looking to use them for burnt offerings. Then each animal is sacrificed in the name of whoever the rightful owner of that animal is.[3]
  • If the burnt offering animal gets mixed up with animals unfit for sacrifice or with animals designated for different kinds of sacrifices and can not be identified, there is not solution and none can be brought.[3]

[edit] Smicha

When the animal is brought to the Beis Hamikdsh or Mishkan the owner must do Smicha on it by forcefully leaning his hand on the its head. When an Olah was brought on a private alter during the periods where they were permitted, he would not do Smicha on it.[3] Smicha applies to both Olahs from cattle (calves & ox) and to Olahs from the flock (sheep & goats).[4] Simcha also applies to obligatory Olahs[4] but does not apply to burnt offerings from birds.[4]

Burnt offerings can be brought from either unblemished male cattle, unblemished male sheep or goat

[edit] Minachos

[edit] Korban Shelamim

[edit] Korban Chatos

[edit] Par Kohen Mashiach

[edit] Par Helem Davar

[edit] Korban Nassi

[edit] Chatos Yachid

[edit] Korban Oleh Viyored

[edit] Korban Asham

[edit] Asham Mei'los

[edit] Asham Gezeilos

[edit] Asham Talui

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rashi Vayikra 1:1
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rashi Vayikra 1:2
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Rashi Vayikra 1:3
  4. ^ a b c d Rashi Vayikra 1:4
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