Parashas Beshalach is the fourth parsha in the Book of Shemos and the 4th week of Shovavim. It contains 116 pesukim. For the Haftora; Ashkenazim read the 'story' and the 'song of Devorah', while Sepharadim only read the 'song'.
Exodus from Egypt
After Pharaoh let the people go, Hashem led the Jews towards Eretz Yisroel around through the desert by the Red Sea, rather then through the short path of the land of Plishtim, to prevent a retreat to Egypt in case they regret their exodus when they see war. The Jews left Egypt armed. Moshe takes the bones of Yosef with him and the Jewish camp is lead by a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night.
The Long Way
Hashem chooses to lead the Jewish Nation to Eretz Yisroel through a long windy path in the desert, to the Red Sea (Sea of Reeds) as opposed to the short simple route through the Land of Phlishtim. This was to prevent the Jews from having thoughts of regret for leaving and will decide to retreat back to Egypt when they encounter opposition such as the war of Amelek and Canaan. Since Egypt was near it would be easy to return. This concern proved itself valid as could be seen during the 'incident of the spies', where the Jews discussed appointing a new leader and heading back to Egypt. Had the path been short and simple, they would have immediately started retreating.
Elevating Sparks of Wilderness
Deserts are a place of desolation, snakes and scorpions which is a manifestation of the realm of the Sitra Achra. Thorough their journey in the wilderness and all the suffering they experienced, the Jews were able to elevate many sparks of holiness associated with this area. This process later helped them enter Eretz Yisroel. Reaching Eretz Yisroel is a major spiritual victory and all those who wish to enter must first undergo suffering. This creates the potential to gather more holy sparks. As a person is pushed through abnormal situations and locations, sparks are automatically attracted to him since every movement he makes is directed towards the underlying goal of reaching the Land of Holiness. He then amass these sparks and brings them to their final gathering place in Eretz Yisroel, making his actual entry possible and easier since he is now also being propelled by the constant magnetic force drawing the dispersed sparks to the Land of Israel.
Less Concentration and Intensity
In order to enter Eretz Yisroel and attain the lofty levels of Holiness associated with it, it was unavoidable the Jews would first have to pass through many obstacles and purifications. If they would have traveled the straight short path, this all would have occurred in great concentration and intensity, making survival almost impossible. Were the Jews to be subject to such intense wars and battles, they would surely try retreating back to Egypt. By lengthening the route, these obstacles and purifications were diluted and thinned out over a much longer time-frame, occurring little by little, making them much more manageable.
Armed and Quintaned
The Jews left Egypt armed since they were heading for the desert and would not be able to later acquire supplies like one traveling through civilized areas and needed to stock up in advance. These weapons were later used to fight the battles of Amalek, Sichon, Og and Midyon. Only a fifth of the original Jewish population left Egypt, the remainding 4/5ths having died during a three day period in midst of the 'plague of darkness', because they lacked faith in the True Tzadik Moshe or preferred slavery to the intense spiritual course they were being led into.
Coffin of Yosef
Moshe took the coffin of Yosef with him, fulfilling the oath Yosef bound his brothers with, forcing them to in turn to bind their descendants with an oath to carry his coffin to Eretz Yisroel when they are redeemed. Unlike Yaakov whose son held the powerful position of viceroy allowing him to be transferred to Eretz Yisroel immediately, Yosef realized that his sons Menashe and Ephraim would be prevented by the Egyptian authorities from doing the same to him. He therefore made his brothers swear to transport him only when they were to be redeemed and leave The Jews also brought with them the bodies of all the Shivatim, Bilah and Yocheved. They later buried the Shivatim throughout Eretz Yisroel, while Bilah and Yocheved are buried in Teveria.
Finding the Coffin
While all the Jews busied themselves extracting gold and valuables from the Egyptians, Moshe went to search for the tomb of Yosef. Unable to find it, he approached Serach bas Asher who related how Pharaoh at the advice of his sorcerers had the coffin submerged into the Nile river in attempt to keep the Jews in permanent bondage, as they could not leave without it. A lead sarcophagus weighing 500 kikarim was created, Yosef's body was sealed inside and it was then sunk in the water.
Brought to the location by Serach, Moshe stood on the river bank addressing Yosef and requesting that he use the merit of his good deeds to rise, so as not to delay the redemption. Moshe then took a piece of pottery, inscribing on it a divine name followed by the words 'Aleh Shor' - 'rise up ox'. He tossed this into the river, immediately causing the coffin to float to the top of the water. Moshe lifted the inner crate and carried it on his shoulder.
The Egyptians sorcerers had not contented themselves with the physical restrictions and had continued to place magical spells to prevent the extraction of Yosef's coffin from the water. These too were nullified by Moshe and their residue manifested as two conjured barking dogs. Moshe remarked how the true dogs did not bark at Jews yet these false occult forged dogs did.
Binding to Tzadik
Moshe bound himself to soul of Yosef using it to attain higher spiritual levels. In essence, the coffin of Yosef served as a portable Kever of a Tzadik for the Jews as they traveled thorough the wilderness.
Start of the Journey
On the first day the Jews travel from Ramses to Sukkot. On the second day they travel from Sukkot and camp in Essum at the edge of the desert. Hashem travels in front of them, navigating the camp with a Pillar of Cloud during the daytime to show them the way and a Pillar of Fire at night to give them light. In essence, the Pillar of Cloud was a messenger being led by Hashem himself in order to lead them so they would know where to travel, as it was not meant for light. During the day the Pillar of Cloud never ceased from the Jews, nor the Pillar of Fire at night. There was never a time where one of the two was not present in front of the camp since they were replaced instantaneously.
On the third day Hashem spoke to Moshe commanding him to instruct the Jews to revert and return to Pi Hachirot, between Migdol and the sea and camp in front of the surviving deity Baal Tzaphone by the sea. During the entire third day the Jews reverted their direction traveling back towards Egypt. This move was done to mislead Pharaoh.. Upon hearing about the retreat it will to cause Pharaoh to say about the Jews, that they had become confused, trapped, sunk, tightened, squeezed and locked in the desert, not knowing how to get out of it and where to go. This belief caused him to chase after them. The Jews were fully aware that they were heading back in direction of Egypt and such a move was likely to induce hostile activity from the their former masters, yet they followed the instructions of Moshe with full faith. Hashem says that once again He will harden Pharaoh's heart, allowing His name to become magnified and glorified as He wreaks vengeance upon the wicked. Retribution is to begin with Pharaoh, since he initiated the sin and then continue upon his entire army.
Pi Hachirot was one of entrances of Egypt consisting of a valley running between two large upright boulders named the Chirot and was therefore known as the 'Mouth of the Chirot' It had formerly been named Pisom but its name had changed to 'the mouth of freedom' (חירת = בני חורין) after the recent exodus of the Jewish nation from Egypt through this passageway, making them free men.
During the 'slaying of the firstborn' all the Egyptian idols had been destroyed. An exception to this was Baal Tzafone (master of the North), one of their leading deities who was accredited with guarding the Northern border of Pisom, preventing the escape of any slaves. Survival of Baal Tzafon was allowed to mislead the Egyptians causing them to think their deity was powerful and fed the Egyptian belief that the 'Side of Holiness' also contained restrictions, limitations and power changes that were based on the dimension of time, just like all the forces they clung to. This opened the possibility of overcoming the Jews if these weakness could be exploited. Although the Jews had freely passed by him on their way out, their current retreat and movement towards Baal Tzafon indicted that he still possessed power over them which had now increased due to astrological time and energy shifts and he was now reeling them back into servitude. This was the exact intention of Hashem whose policy is to allow the wicked to stumble over their own mistakes and misleads them so they can be destroyed.
Splitting of the Sea
The Egyptians chase the Jews, cornering them at Pi Hachiros at the start of the 7th night. The Jews cry to Hashem out of fear but are reassured by Moshe of an emanate salvation. Hashem commands the Jews to move forward and the pillar of cloud goes behind them, separating them from the Egyptians. Moshe splits the sea and the waters surround them like a fortress. The Egyptians follow the Jews into the split sea but Hashem confounds them, burning off the wheels of their chariots. Moshe returns the sea to its former state drowning all the Egyptians and the Jews recognize their great salvation.
Informed of Escape
Pharaoh had sent spies among the Erev Rav that had converted and joined the Jews. When the three days the Jews had requested for worship in the desert had elapsed, they realized that they had no intention of returning to Egypt. They came and informed Pharaoh on the fourth day, that the Jews had no intention of returning to Egypt and planned on escaping for good.
Pharaoh and his ministers have a change of heart, regretting having released the Jews from servitude. Spurred by the thought of all the money they had lent them, the Egyptians decide to chase after the Jews, once again becoming their complete enemies. Pharaoh convinced his nation through his words, reminding them how they had simply let the Jews go, along with all their money after undergoing so much suffering. Pharaoh also declared that he would not act like other kings who travel securely behind their army but then take whatever they choose from the spoils. He would travel in front of his army and agrees to only take an equal share of the plunder. They gather all their cavalry and warriors, led by six hundred elite chariots and a consignment of generals. With Pharaoh personally harnessing his chariot, they set out chasing the Jews on the fifth and the sixth days.
During the Plague of Pestilence most of the Egyptian livestock and animals had died. Only animals that were stored inside their home by the Egyptians that feared the warning of Moshe, had been spared. Now these same Egyptians that had feared the word of Hashem, volunteerly gave over their animals to chase the Jews. Such actions confirm that one should crush the head of even the best snake.
No Place to Turn
The Egyptians confront the Jews as they camp near the sea by Pi Hachiros in front of Baal Tzaphone. Pharaoh races ahead of his army. The Jews see the Egyptians chasing after them, they are very frightened and scream to Hashem. They then complain to Moshe for taking them out and ask him "were there not enough graves in Egypt that you have taken us out to die in the desert?". They remind him that they had already mentioned this to him while they were still in Egypt, that it was better to remain there then to leave and die in the desert. Moshe replies that they should not fear and will soon see the great salvation that Hashem will perform for them. He then adds that after that day the Egyptians will never be seen the same. All they have to do is remain silent and Hashem will fight for them.
Moshe starts to pray. Hashem tells him to stop yelling and tell the Jews to advance. He then tells Moshe to lift his hand over the sea and split it into two so the Jews can pass through on dry land.
Both the angel and the pillar of cloud that normally traveled in front of the Jewish camp, now relocate to the back of the camp, dividing them from the Egyptians for the entire night.
As the Jews stood by the sea, great judgments arose against them and the angel that stood before them sweetening all judgments, abandoned them. The arch ministering angel of Egypt demanded to know why the Jews deserved to be spared while the Egyptians were to drown, if they were both guilty of idol worship. These arguments were accepted and a debate started if the Jews should indeed be allowed to survive. Sensing these judgments the Egyptians began to press forward. Feeling the judgments as well, the Jews screeched from extreme misery in repentance to Hashem, causing mercy to be awakened on high and the judgments to be slightly subdued, resulting in the pillar of cloud moving behind to protect them.
Despite this alleviation, the litigation continued throughout the night, leaving the Jews hanging between mercy and judgment, light and darkness.
Splitting the Sea
Moshe raises his arm over the sea and Hashem brings a strong wind the entire night that splits the sea, paving a path of dry land. The sea splits in a half circle, like a rainbow, allowing the Jews to enter it and exit it on the same side. The Jews enter the sea and the water is frozen like a barricade on their right and left.
Seeing how the judgments were rotating back and forth the entire night, Moshe raised his arm, making an awesome unification that completely sweetened the judgments from the Jews, turning them into complete mercy.
Chase in the Sea
The Egyptians chase the Jews following them into the sea. At dawn Hashem confounds the Egyptian army, removing the wheels of their chariots and thrusting them with great heaviness. Seeing that Hashem is fighting for the Jews, the Egyptians decide to evacuate.
False Egyptian Hope
The Egyptians were well aware that they had been afflicted by the ten plagues while the Jews had been spared and logically had every right to assume that the same would happen were they to continue the case into the sea. Yet the entire night they had sensed the intense judgments and alternating litigation undergoing the Jews regarding their supremacy over them. This caused the Egyptians to assume that the hour was laughing in their favor, which in fact was the very reason Hashem had permitted the prosecution to rage against the Jews the entire night. Bolstered and prodded by a more confident ministering angle, the Egyptians consciously and willingly surged into the sea.
Since the sea split like a rainbow and the exterior of the 12 passages were considerably longer then the interior passages, Hashem made the earth molten heaviest towards the epicenter of the split and lighter heading outwards. This slowed the Egyptians in the inner passages at a greater rate, compensating for the unequivocal distance between the levels of the arches, enabling the last of the Jews traveling in the long exterior passage to exit the sea while the Egyptians chasing through the short interior passage still remained inside.
Drowning of Egyptians
Hashem tells Moshe to raise his hand over the sea and let the water return to its former position. Just as the morning is about to arrive, Moshe raises his arm and the water crashes down, drowning every last one of the Egyptians with the exception of Pharaoh.
Song of the Sea
The Jews seeing the great miracle performed for them, experience a state of great belief in Hashem and his tzadik Moshe. They then proceed to sing the 'Song of the Sea' which in essence is composed of the following elements...
- Praise of Hashem.
- Description and details of the Egyptians drowning in the sea.
- Description of the fear that descended upon the nations of the world.
- Prophesy regarding the building of the Beis Hamikdash.
- Statements of Hashem's eternal rulership.
Belief in Moshe
Belief in the true Tzadikim is essential for belief in Hashem, since it them who draw down the faith. It is impossible to reach complete faith in Hashem without faith in the Tzadikim and a person that does not have faith in the true Tzadikim is flawed also in his faith of Hashem.
Building of Beis Hamikdash
The song informed the Jews about the building of the Beis Hamikdash, the mountain of His inheritance, since that is the main aspect of redemption, where Hashem brings the Upper aspects to the Lower World by resting His Presence in physical matter and raises the Lower aspects to Above through the Korbonos sacrifices.
Song of the Women
Miriam, followed by all the women take out timbrels and begin to dance and play their instruments. Miriam proceeds to sing a song of thanks to Hashem.
The Bitter Waters
The Jews reach Marah and fail to pass the test of requesting water respectfully. Moshe sweetens the bitter waters for them and gives over some laws from the Torah.
Moshe leads the Jews from Yam Suf through a three day trip in the 'Wilderness of Shur', during which they do not have any water to drink. They reach Marah and finally discover a source of water but it is undrinkable due to its bitterness. The Jews complains to Moshe who in turn screams to Hashem. He is instructed to throw a tree into the water. This sweetens the water and the Jews are able to drink. In Marah the Jews are given a few commandments. They are informed that if they listen to all the laws of Hashem and do what is good in His eyes, they would be spared from all the illness that they had seen Hashem afflict the Egyptians with.
When a person sins, he flaws the pipe ways of influx and can only attain substinance and energy through bitterness, until the flaws are rectified. The Jews had all committed many personal flaws in Egypt and now experienced intense bitterness as their new states of influx descended through spiritual worship. Aside from its spiritual implications, physically this manifested as three days of thirstiness and the ensuing discovery of bitter waters.
Sweetening the Bitterness
Moshe took a tree and threw it in the water, this also alluded to the advice he transmitted to the Jews involving an intense meditation to be used during times of prayers, where the initiate visualizes his soul in the Garden of Eden, completely diverse of any physicality. This allows a person to pray without any haughtiness or self interest. To reach this state, one first has to undergo great repentance from all his sins. Once this state is attained a person will surely not request anything physical and all his prayers will be for the glory of Hashem, causing them to be accepted and effective. In their efforts to attain these levels, the Jews underwent major repentance, thereby rectifying many of their flawed pipes, sweetening the bitterness and causing many of their prosecuting spiritual adversaries to rise, transforming them into defenders.
When a person begins to repent, technically he should have to undergo horrible suffering due to his past actions, far more then he could possibly withstand, since he can not be cured without it. Yet when a person serves Hashem, He cures a person with great mercy, only giving him the amount of suffering that one could truly handle.
From Marah the Jews travel to Elim. There they find twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees.
The Jews complain about the lack of food. Hashem informs Moshe about the manna. At night quails descend on the camp providing flesh and in the morning the manna rains down. The Jews collect the manna as instructed only to find that both those that collected a lot and those that collected little are left with the same amount per individual. Moshe commands not to leave any manna overnight and sure enough what was left over rots. On Friday the Jews collect manna for two days and Moshe tells them no manna will come down on Shabbot. Some people go out to search for manna on Shabbos morning but do not find any. Moshe teaches the prohibition of walking past civilized boundaries on Shabbos. Aharon stores manna in a jar as a testimony for future generations. The Jews eat the manaa until they enter Eretz Yisroel The measurement of each portion of manna is a tenth of an Epha.
From Elim the Jews journey into the 'Wilderness of Sin', arriving on the 15th of Iyar. There the Jews complain to Moshe and Aharon about the lack of food and express their wishes to have at least died in Egypt where they had access to constant flesh and plentiful bread.
Hashem tells Moshe that he will rain mun from the sky, which the Jews can gather and eat each day. On Fridays they would receive a double portion. Moshe rebukes the Jews for their complaint and says during the night they will receive flesh and bread during the day. Moshe instruct Aaron to gather the Jews in front of the 'cloud pillar'. As Aharon is speaking the glory of Hashem descends into the cloud.
Flesh and Bread
That night quails came and covered the camp. In the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp. When the layer of dew evaporated a fine layer of small round beads remained on the ground. Not knowing what this was, the Jews question one another. Moshe informs them that this was the 'bread' Hashem gave them and commands them in His name to gather an omer worth of mun for each member of their households. Some Jews gather more then the instructed measurement and some gather less. Despite this, upon measuring their stockpiles they realized that they had miraculously re-sized to the allotted portions of an omer per individual.
Moshe warns the Jews not leave any mun over for the next day. Dassan and Aviram test this rule, resulting in their mun rotting and breading worms. Moshe was upset at them. Each morning the Jews would gather the mun after which the remainder would melt from the sun. The manna was given day by day and not once per week or month to help strengthen the faith of the Jews.
On Friday the Jews were surprised to find their gathered portions totaling the amount of two omer per individual, double the regular volume. Their leaders approached Moshe to insure what was occurring. Moshe informs them of the prophesy he had previously been given that each Friday they would receive a double portion, the remainder of which would be saved for Shabbat, since no mun would descend on that day. They left the mun for the morning and it did not rot or breed worms.
Dassan and Aviram try to prove Moshe wrong by distributing their mun on the ground but when they go out, followed by a group of Jews on Shabbat morning to search for mun, they find it had vanished. Hashem rebukes Moshe and the Jews for desecrating the Shabbos at the same time alluding to the laws of Eruv Techumin and the Rabbinical transgression of walking 2000 amous on Shabbos beyond civilized areas.
The Jews name this spiritual food Manna. It was shaped like coriander seed but unlike its black color, the Manna was white. It tasted like wafers made with honey. The Jews eat the Manna for forty years until they arrive at the edge of Canaan. An omer is the tenth part of an ephah.
Hashem tells Moshe to gather an omerful of Manna and preserve it as a remembrance for later generations. Aharon at the command of Moshe, fills a jar with an omerful of Manna and stores it front of the Ark. This jar of manna was used hundreds of years later by the prophet Yermiyah to bolster the nation's faith.
Thirst of Refidim
The Nation thrsts for water in Refidim and quarrel with Moshe. Moshe hits a rock with his rod in front of the elders, producing a stream of water and names the location Massah and Merivah after this incident.
From the 'wilderness of Sin' the Jews journey and encamped in Rephidim, where there was no water to drink. The Jews aside for the Tribe of Levi quarrel with Moshe who questions them why they are testing Hashem. Once again they complain why to Moshe why he took them out from Egypt to have them, their children and livestock die from thirst. Moshe cries out to Hashem saying they are almost ready to stone him. Hashem instructs him to pass before the Jews and to take with him the elders of Yisroel and the rod with which he smote the river. Acting upon Hashem's instructions, Moshe hits a rock in front of the elders, producing a stream of water. Moshe names the location Massah and Merivah after the quarrel of the Jews and their test to see if Hashem was among them or not.
Battle of Amalek
Amalek comes to battle the Jews and is attacked by Yehoshua and a select army. Moshe sits on an overlooking hill, holding his arms up, supported by Aharon and Chur. When his arms are up the Jews prevail and when down Amalek prevails. Hashem commands Moshe to write the story of the battle in a book and promises to obliterate the remembrance of Amalek. Moshe builds and alter and Hashem swears to wage a constant battle against Amalek until they are destroyed.
Amalek comes and fights with the Jews in Rephidim. Moshe commands Yehoshua to choose men and go out and fight Amalek. Durin the battle he will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of Hashem in his hand. Yehoshua goes out as instructed and battles Amalek. Moshe, Aharon and Chur go to the top of the overlooking hill. When Moshe lifted his hands the Jews prevailed, when he let down his hands Amalek prevailed. Moshe's hands became heavy, Aharon and Chur brought him a stone to sit on and each one then stood on his side and supported one of his arms, holding his hands steady until the setting of the sun. Yehoshua defeats Amalek, weakening them with the sword.
War Through Yehoshua
Amelek's entire campaign was to conceal the power of Moshe, the true Tzadik. Therefore he was unable to lead the war himself, for how could Moshe defend his own name. Instead he sent Yehoshua to wage it, whose entire objective was to publicize the glory of his master and it is specifically through his students that the true greatness of the Tzadik becomes revealed. At the same time all of Yehoshua's power came from Moshe, as he himself did not have the power to wage such a ferocious battle and was only victorious when Moshe raised his hands.
Raising of the Hands
Moshe's hands themselves held no power but served as a reminder for the Jews to depend on Hashem. Due to the thick impurity of Amelek at its peak, it was impossible to speak about the glory of Hashem at all or convey it through speech, since it could almost not be found in those circumstances. Moshe could only hint with this arms that in the total void and emptiness, each person must search, pursue and inquire himself 'where' is the glory of Hashem, which would then open the channel for higher perception.
Weakening of Amelek
The Klipa of Amelek is very strong and only Hashem Himself could destroy it completely, as will occur at the time of Moshiach. Moshe knew that if he fought for complete annihilation and victory and tried to subdue it totally, it would strengthened itself with such might that even a powerful Tzadik like himself would not be able to stand against it. He therefore settled to simply weakening it to what was doable at that stage.
Hashem tells Moshe that he will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven and instructs him to write this for a memorial in the book, and rehearse it in the ears of Yehoshua. Moshe builds and altar and names it Amoni-Nissi. He then declares that by the hand upon the throne of the Hashem: Hashem will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.
- ^ a b c d e Rashi Shemos 13:17
- ^ a b c d e Rashi Shemos 13:18
- ^ Likutay Halachos AC Birchas Hariach 4:55
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shover Zadim Parshas Bishalach
- ^ Likutay Halachos
- ^ Shover Zadim Parshas Bo
- ^ a b c d Rashi Shemos 13:19
- ^ a b Avosanue / Divarim Rabba 11
- ^ Avosenue / Tanchuma Bishalach 2
- ^ Avosenue / Shimos Rabba 20 :19
- ^ Avosenue / Psikta Drav Kahana Bishalach D"H Vayikach Moshe
- ^ a b Likutay Halachos Choshen Mishpat - Halachos Chovel Bichavero 3:13
- ^ a b Rashi Shemos 13:20
- ^ a b Rashi Shemos 13:21
- ^ Rashi Shemos 13:22
- ^ a b c d e f g Rashi Shemos 14:2
- ^ a b c d Rashi Shemos 14:3
- ^ Rashi
- ^ a b Rashi Shemos 14:4
- ^ Baal Haturim 13:21
- ^ a b c Rashi Shemos 14:5
- ^ Baal Haturim
- ^ a b c Rashi Shemos 14:6
- ^ Rashi Shemos 14:7
- ^ a b c Mivaser Tzedek Bishalach D'H Vyisa Malach
- ^ needs source
- ^ a b c d Mivaser Tzedek Bishalach D"H Oy Yomar
- ^ Arvay Nachal Bishalach Drush Alef
- ^ Rashi
- ^ Likutay Halachos AC Hil Pesach 6:1
- ^ Likutay Halachos AC Hil Shabbos 6:11
- ^ a b c Sichos HaRan 40
- ^ Mivaser Tzedek Bishalach D"H Vlo Yochlo Lishtos
- ^ Mivaser Tzedek Bishalach D"H Vyitzak
- ^ Likutay Halachos AC Hil Bitziyas Hapas 1 / 18
- ^ Likutay Halachos YD Hil Shiluach Haken 5:15
- ^ Rashi Devarim 33:8
- ^ Likutay Halachos AC Hil Shabbos 5:10
- ^ Likutay Halachos CM Hil Giviyas Chov Miyisomim 3:9