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Also known as Gems, Jewels and Precious Stones. Most gemstones are classified as minerals with rare exceptions such as pearls, amber, coral and jet.


[edit] Types of Gemstones

[edit] Apatite

[edit] Azurite

[edit] Benitoite

[edit] Beryl

[edit] Aquamarine

[edit] Emerald

[edit] Heliodore

[edit] Morganite

[edit] Chalcedony

[edit] Agate

  • Dendritic Agate / Scenic Agate
  • Eye Agate / Orbicular Agate
  • Fire Agate
  • Iris Agate
  • Landscape Agate
  • Sardonyx / Sard

[edit] Aventurine

[edit] Black Chalcedony / Black Onyx

[edit] Bloodstone

[edit] Carnelian

[edit] Chrysoprase

[edit] Heliotrope

[edit] Jasper

[edit] Chrysocolla

[edit] Chrysoberyl

[edit] Alexandrite


[edit] Cat's Eye

[edit] Cordierite

[edit] Iolite

[edit] Corundum

[edit] Ruby

  • Star Ruby

[edit] Sapphire

  • Star Sapphire

[edit] Diamond

[edit] Diopside

[edit] Chrome Diopside

[edit] Feldspar

[edit] Moonstone

[edit] Sunstone

[edit] Fluorite

[edit] Garnets

Unlike other gem families whose color variations result due to the presence of impurities, garnets colors are due to differences in their actual chemical structure. Therefore they are classified as a 'group' unlike other families that are classified as a 'species'.

[edit] Almandite

  • Demantoid
  • Rhodolite

[edit] Andratite

[edit] Grossularite

  • Hessonite
  • Tsavorite

[edit] Malaya

[edit] Pyrope

  • Rhodolite

[edit] Spessartine

[edit] Uvarovite

[edit] Grossularite

[edit] Hematite

[edit] Jadeite

[edit] Jade

[edit] Kyanite

[edit] Labradorite

[edit] Lapis Lazuli

Lapis lazuli is a mixture of minerals lazurite, calcite and sometimes pyrite and is classified as a rock. In the jewelry industry it is often referred to simply as 'lapis'.

[edit] Malachite

[edit] Nephrite

[edit] Jade

[edit] Olivine

[edit] Peridot

[edit] Opal

[edit] Organic

[edit] Amber

Although found in the earth Amber is was produced by living organisms and is not considered a mineral, instead being classified as a mineraloid.

[edit] Corel

[edit] Ivory

[edit] Jet

Although found in the earth Jet is was produced by living organisms and is not considered a mineral, instead being classified as a mineraloid.

[edit] Pearl

[edit] Shell

[edit] Tortoise Shell

[edit] Quartz

[edit] Amethyst

[edit] Ametrine

[edit] Citrine

[edit] Rock Crystal

[edit] Rose Quartz

[edit] Smoky Quartz

[edit] Tiger's Eye Quartz

[edit] Rhodochrosite

[edit] Sinhalite

[edit] Sodalite

[edit] Sphene

[edit] Titanite

[edit] Spinel

[edit] Sugilite

[edit] Spodumene

[edit] Hiddenite

[edit] Kunzite

[edit] Topaz

  • Blue Topaz
  • Red Topaz

[edit] Tourmaline

  • Green Tourmaline
  • Paraiba Tourmaline
  • Tri-color Tourmaline

[edit] Turquoise

[edit] Zircon

[edit] Zoisite

[edit] Tanzanite

[edit] History

Throughout history people have always admired the beauty of gemstones and due to their rarity, placed have value on them.

[edit] Gem Identification

Methods used to identify gems from similar looking species, separate them from imitations and to recognize enhancements and treatments. Since most gemstones are minerals that have a uniform chemical composition, giving them a consistent set of physical and optical properties, accurate measurement of these properties greatly helps gem identification.

[edit] Issues

Largest issues of gem identification are failing to consider all possibilities and misinterpreting test results.

[edit] Imitations

High value of gems have led to various forms of imitations over the years.

[edit] Treatments

Treatments developed to raise apparent value of stones.

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