(Hebrew: / Spelling: Rosh Hashana, Rosh Hashanah / Other Names: )
New Years day on the Jewish Calendar. On Rosh Hashana all judged in front of Hashem and their fate is decided for the upcoming year.
Four Rosh Hashana's
Although the term Rosh Hashana is generally used to refers to the Jewish New Year's that falls out on the first of Tishrei the Mishanh list four different Rosh Hashana's or beginning days. On the first day of Tishray it is Rosh Hashanah for the Years, Shmitah, Yovlim, Planting and Vegetables.
Years - It is the first day of the Jewish Calender and is used for dating documents. Additionally the human race is judged on this Rosh Hashana for the upcoming year.
Shmitos and Yovlim - Once Rosh Hashana comes in it becomes forbidden to plow the land Mdioraysa on every seventh and fiftieth year of the Shmitah cycle.
Planting - In reference to the three years a tree needs to get out of its Urlah status, Rosh Hashana is considered the starting point. Even if a tree was planted 45 days earlier during the month of Av, when Rosh Hashanah comes around it is already considered the second year.
Vegetables - It is forbidden to give Masser from vegetables that grew in one year from vegetables that grew in a previous or later year. Rosh Hashanah is the determining point that establishes the year for vegetable Masser. Therefore one would not be able to give Masser from vegetables that were harvested on Erev Rosh Hashana from vegetables that were harvested the day after Rosh Hashanah.